Monolingual dictionary – Phuut Thai Thu, 02 Dec 2021 11:26:10 +0000 en-US hourly 1 Monolingual dictionary – Phuut Thai 32 32 Brains are naturally wired to be bilingual Tue, 30 Nov 2021 16:47:00 +0000 In this interview, News-Medical tells Sarah Phillips about new research on how bilingual brains process different languages, and how the same neural mechanism is used for each when interpreting expressions in multiple languages. Please introduce yourself and tell us about your background in neuroscience. My name is Sarah Phillips and I am currently a PhD […]]]>

In this interview, News-Medical tells Sarah Phillips about new research on how bilingual brains process different languages, and how the same neural mechanism is used for each when interpreting expressions in multiple languages.

Please introduce yourself and tell us about your background in neuroscience.

My name is Sarah Phillips and I am currently a PhD student in Linguistics. student at New York University. Before coming to NYU, I had no experience in neuroscience research. I studied code-switching – the alternation between languages ​​in speech – through sociolinguistic and theoretical perspectives. This has been and continues to be very motivated by my experiences growing up as a bilingual English Korean and African American.

It wasn’t until I was working for an academic editor that I was exposed to what neuroscientists were saying about the bilingual mind, which seemed more focused on how bilingualism can affect cognition more broadly. I felt there was a gap in the understanding of how bilinguals deal with languages, so that’s where my journey in neuroscience began.

How are languages ​​processed by the brain?

I think the domain recognizes the number of regions of the brain used to process language, with each region harboring mechanisms responsible for specific tasks. Liina Pylkkänen, lead author of the article and my advisor, has systematically studied the role of the left anterior temporal lobe in the way we derive meanings by composing words together. This is just one of the many tasks involved in language processing.

Image Credit: TypoArt BS /

What did you find about the brain combining words from different languages, and would that teach us about the brain and bilingualism?

My work extends much of what we know about how we combine words from the same language to what many bilinguals do, which is also combining words from different languages.

We found that bilinguals recruited the left anterior temporal lobe to combine words from the same language as well as from different languages ​​without exhibiting language switching effects. I think this tells us that monolinguals and bilinguals use similar neural mechanisms to derive meanings through composition.

How did you study this?

We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to record the brain activity of Korean / English bilinguals when presented with two words, followed by a picture. The two words varied in three ways: they varied according to whether or not they were composable (“the ice cubes melt” versus “the melted ones jump”); they varied depending on whether the words were in English or Korean (“고드름 melt” vs “뛰어 melt”); they varied depending on whether Korean words were in Hangul (the standard writing system for Korean) or the Roman alphabet (which is the same set of letters used in English).

After seeing the two words, our participants saw a picture and were asked to rate whether what they were reading matched the picture they had seen.

What is magnetoencephalography (MEG) and how was it used in your study?

I should start by saying that the neurons in our brains emit electrical signals when they communicate with each other. These signals generate an electric current and the electric currents generate electromagnetic fields.

MEG is a technique that records changes in electromagnetic fields produced by neuronal discharges in our brain. We used this technique to identify when, in milliseconds, particular brain regions activate in response to two words presented to participants.

What parts of the brain were activated during the bilingualism tests?

While several regions were activated in response to multilingual expressions, the timing of when they were activated is important in this study. If the words are presented in a combinatorial context (“melt” presented after “ice cubes”), we would expect them to cause an increase in activity in the left anterior temporal lobe at about 200 msec compared to the same words. presented in a non-combinatorial context. context (“melt” presented after “jump”).

We saw this effect in our bilingual participants, even when the words changed language. While the left anterior temporal lobe did not show sensitivity to the change in language or writing system during this combinatorial stage of treatment, we observed robust effects in several regions caused by a match between the change in language and the change of writing system.

The left anterior temporal lobe, the left inferior frontal gyrus (better known as the “Broca’s zone”), the anterior cingulate cortex, and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex all responded more each time the language change corresponded to changes in language. writing systems, but at different times. This leaves open the question of how bilingualism can affect all of these regions.

Temporal lobe

Image Credit: decade3d – Anatomy Online /

If the same neural mechanism is used to interpret expressions in multiple languages ​​and to interpret expressions in only one language, how does the brain separate the different languages?

Current ideas about how bilinguals store words in their lexicons (which one can imagine to be a mental dictionary) suggest that we maintain linguistic distinctions at the level of perception (i.e. how words ring or are written).

I think the interaction effects between language membership and writing systems speak to this, but I don’t know how we keep languages ​​separated at the level of perception based on the results of this project.

Why is it important to understand the nature of bi- and multilingualism?

Many, if not most, people around the world engage in more than one language on a daily basis, and yet our current understanding of how our brains process language is limited to those who engage in just one language.

I believe that the development of more linguistically inclusive language processing models is essential for the success of our models when applied in clinical settings.

What impacts could this research have when applied to today’s society?

One of the main points to remember is that bilingual behavior should not be viewed as deviant or bad because it does not look like monolingual behavior.

Having said that, I think this project serves as a starting point for understanding typical bilingual behaviors so that bilinguals are not mistakenly perceived as poor language users or, worse yet, misdiagnosed for having a treatment deficit. language.

What is the next step in this research?

Languages ​​can differ significantly in how they structure words together into sentences (syntax), but this study used stimuli that kept the syntax consistent within each type of stimulus. I did this to make sure the switching effects weren’t confused by syntactic differences.

However, I think it’s important to see what happens when bilinguals switch languages ​​in expressions where the two languages ​​are syntactically different, as this is a commonly observed phenomenon.

Where can readers find more information?

Readers can access the document using the following link:

About Sarah Phillips

Sarah F. Phillips is currently a doctoral student in linguistics. Student at New York University. His work mainly focuses on bilingual language processing and bilingual language development, using both neuroimaging and behavioral methods.Sarah phillips

You can find more information about Sarah on her website:

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Misinterpreted: the underestimated value of translations Mon, 15 Nov 2021 05:15:01 +0000 Reading time: 6 minutes Human translators, as opposed to translation software, generally have a broad knowledge of the subject matter relevant to the translation assignment. The term “lost in translation” is rather overused. It is a hot topic that harkens back to the real essence of what is lost when a text is translated from […]]]>
Reading time: 6 minutes

Human translators, as opposed to translation software, generally have a broad knowledge of the subject matter relevant to the translation assignment.

The term “lost in translation” is rather overused. It is a hot topic that harkens back to the real essence of what is lost when a text is translated from one language to another, as some of the original meaning, intentions or puns can only be understood in the context of the original language of the play.

Unfortunately, some might say that translation is an art form and a dying career because of translation software – the most obvious advantages of digital translation are its efficiency and low cost.

While human translators can translate approximately 2000 words per day (and charge a reasonable fee for it), translation software is almost instantaneous and widely available for free. The Internet has revolutionized the ability to access, translate and understand texts and documents from around the world.

The vast majority of people use Google Translate or DeepL to quickly translate a few words or phrases into another language. However, if they don’t speak the language or know the proper method of expressing a given term or probing the software’s work, they might end up with a statement that doesn’t make sense.

While machine translation is often a good solution for translating individual words or short sentences, such as when reading a traffic sign or communicating with a taxi driver in a foreign country, it struggles with it. complex sentences and is often unable to translate idioms and colloquialisms, among other more difficult concepts.

Human translators, as opposed to translation software, generally have a deep knowledge of the subject matter relevant to the translation assignment given to them, as well as the ability to conduct in-depth research on a specific term or topic in order to understand the subject matter. ensure that it is translated using exactly the correct terminology in the target language.

Julián Zapata Rojas, part-time teacher and internship coordinator at the U of O School of Translation and Interpretation, had the privilege of teaching 12 different courses, including general and specialized translation from and to English, Spanish and French. In addition, he has taught “transfer-free” courses, such as professional aspects of translation, lexicology and documentation, terminology and translation technologies (undergraduate and graduate).

Rojas says he uses human resources, such as experts in the field, and material resources, such as dictionaries and computer tools, to teach his students the most effective strategies to use in translating the literature of one language to another.

“Human translators have always used technology as aids – since the invention of writing systems and writing tools,” Rojas said in an interview.

“The idea of ​​using computers to translate (automatically) or as a tool to assist translators is as old as the idea of ​​computers itself. But other types of technologies are also useful in different ways: translation memories, parallel electronic corpora and speech recognition systems are just some of the many technologies that help translators, for example, to speed up the process, to produce better quality texts. ”

When translating, Jordan Gagné’s teachers (fourth year French-English-Spanish translation student) advise her to use TERMIUM Plus because it is an official government database, as well as The Grand Dictionary of Terminology, Linguee, DeepL, and the bilingual and monolingual online dictionaries. “[We] should never use Google Translate. Technology is a great tool. It helps fill in the gaps, helps us justify our choices, and find better ways of saying things idiomatically. Machine translation is not 100% accurate, but that doesn’t make it a less useful tool, ”she said.

Rojas argued that when properly learned and used, no technological application should prevent the translator from understanding text in one language and translating it into another.

In addition, Rojas elucidates the ways in which the meaning of a word changes when translated. “Words that appear to be ‘the same’ in two closely related languages ​​can have different meanings – also known as false relatives or false friends. Sometimes they mean the opposite. Sometimes they mean the same thing too, but one of them also means something else. There are inevitably, almost always,[thing] loss of translation.

In addition, some people rely heavily on the subtitles of their favorite shows to learn the language; Rojas explains how this is an acceptable approach to learning the language.

“Read the subtitles as one [watches] a [program] in the same language was suggested as a good way to familiarize yourself with that language, to learn vocabulary and to become familiar with a particular accent. Henceforth, subtitles in another language should be used with caution when learning foreign languages.

As globalization is a continuous process, new content is always translated. This should be done both linguistically and in accordance with the cultural expectations of the target audience.

Salah Basalamah, associate professor and president of the School of Translation and Interpretation at the University of Ottawa, believes that “translating is almost always an approximation, especially if one wishes to preserve the idiomaticity of the target language. , that is, not to imitate the form of the source language.

“Certainly, emotions are as difficult to transfer as ideas, because in the process feelings and meanings change slightly. ”

Basalamah also believes that there is no other way to translate than to understand the cultures and languages ​​in contact – both as a source and as a target – as a prerequisite.

“You don’t really know its value or its challenges until you get your hands on it and face the challenges of the process,” Basalamah said.

“It is also a question of perception from the outside, but also a question of presentation and representation of what translation is from the translators’ point of view. I believe that despite their ability to use the mysteries of the languages ​​they master, their ability to communicate about their practice and its value still needs to be improved and perfected.

Rojas expresses his disappointment at the underestimation of the translations. “Translators have enabled communications between humans of different tribes, communities, countries and continents for millennia. And yet, even today, the translation is only ‘visible’ when there is a translation error here and a funny translation there, ”he said.

Sarah May, a fourth year French-English-Spanish translation student chose this program because she loves that there are so many different fields in translation, which allows her to deepen her knowledge of the world and ” understand different perspectives.

“It’s a career where you learn something new every day by translating texts on different subjects. I also enjoy translation because there are so many translation errors in our daily life that can have consequences in people’s lives. These mistakes should be avoided in the future with skilled translators who pay attention to the small details, ”she said.

May plans to become a subtitle translator after graduating. It also explains the importance of understanding the culture of the source language in order to understand idioms and nuances, and to be able to find equivalents or similar expressions in the target language. “If the differences between the cultures of the target audiences are not taken into account, the translations may not be as idiomatic or geared towards certain aspects of the right culture. ”

“Personally, I watch Spanish telenovelas to improve my Spanish. I listen to the characters speak in Spanish while using Spanish subtitles (not English) so I can read it too. It helped me, but I can’t just rely on TV shows because the subtitles aren’t always accurate. I try to read, write and speak in spanish too.

However, May says technology can prevent us from properly learning a language because people rely too much on it without learning basic grammar rules, as well as learning different communication skills.

“The true meaning of words gets lost in translation because there are many interpretations of the ‘true’ meaning of a single word,” May said. “A translator may have a different interpretation of one text from another depending on their knowledge, background, culture, gender, education, age, sexual orientation, experience, etc.

For example, sometimes people who have to fill out immigration papers to flee their country do not speak English. Therefore, it is crucial to provide accurate translations to everyone in order to encourage diversity and equality all over the world.

Gagné chose to study translation because she has always loved languages ​​and dialects and the way they shape our cultures and communities.

“I think a big challenge we face in the world today is poor communication and misunderstanding, not only between languages, but also between people who speak the same language,” she said. declared. “This idea of ​​misunderstanding has always interested me, and translation really leads me to learn how to clearly express what you want to communicate. “

Gagné believes that culture plays a huge role in translation. “If you don’t understand the culture of the audience you’re translating for, then that audience might not be able to fully identify with or understand the text they’re reading. Cultural elements like idioms, religions, etiquette, among others, could be completely ignored in the translation if the translator does not have adequate knowledge of the culture of the target audience, ”she said.

“If a translation is poorly done, you could confuse people at best and endanger them at worst, like poor translation of heavy machinery instruction manuals. The translation is often inseparable from the source text, so the translator is inseparable from the author, at least in the eyes of most readers.

“I think translation is more of a silent hero because people can’t know what they don’t know. If the information is not available for a certain linguistic community because there is no translation for it, then they have no possibility of appreciating the translation. [itself]”Declared Gagné.

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Mille Lacs Band launches books in Ojibwe Sun, 17 Oct 2021 22:37:36 +0000 THOUSAND LAKES RESERVATION – Towards the end of her life, Lucy Clark felt a sense of melancholy. “She was sad,” said her grandson, Steve Premo, “because she couldn’t hear the song of the tongue.” Native Indian languages ​​have been suppressed for generations in Minnesota and elsewhere, to the point that fewer than 25 “first speakers” […]]]>

THOUSAND LAKES RESERVATION – Towards the end of her life, Lucy Clark felt a sense of melancholy.

“She was sad,” said her grandson, Steve Premo, “because she couldn’t hear the song of the tongue.”

Native Indian languages ​​have been suppressed for generations in Minnesota and elsewhere, to the point that fewer than 25 “first speakers” – those who speak a language from birth – remain in the Thousand Lakes Strip of Ojibwe.

But now Lucy Clark’s mind can smile as the band brings the song back to life. At a celebration earlier this month, the group launched five books written in their Ojibway dialect.

Dozens of band members contributed to the project, including Premo, who provided illustrations. Others told native stories and helped with vocabulary. Joe Nayquonabe, a keynote speaker, said the experience was “one of the happiest times of my life.

“Being with the elders, seeing their smiling faces and feeling like a community,” said Nayquonabe, 77.

That’s the purpose of the effort, said Baabiitaw Boyd, the group’s senior advisor on language revitalization initiatives.

“We want to rebuild self-esteem and identity as an Anishinaabe,” Boyd said, using a term denoting a large group of culturally related indigenous peoples in the Great Lakes region. “One of the ways we do this is through language revitalization, [to] empower people to deepen their knowledge of Anishinaabe practices, what it means to be in the Anishinaabe family.

“We are very proud of it and we think it is a great success.”

It would have been difficult to find someone at the launch of the book who disagreed. Over 100 people of all ages mingled and shared food at the Mille Lacs Indian Museum as they celebrated the book project and the elders who contributed their knowledge.

Children ran and played while proud contributors signed copies of the books. The elders shared stories as old friends laughed and joked with each other, often in Ojibwe.

The book project was carried out under the aegis of the group’s Aanjibimaadizing division, which means “changing lives”. This is another indication of the group’s belief that language is the key to the overall improvement of the lives of its members.

“I think this is very important because our ancestors are the ones who taught us,” said Carol Nickaboine, an 82-year-old first speaker. “Languages ​​should not be forgotten,” she added, chuckling, noting that she even spoke Ojibwe to her cat.

Shirley Boyd was a labor pioneer, leaving the reserve to drive trucks and loaders for the Minnesota Department of Transportation. Boyd, also an 82-year-old first speaker, was among the first women and the first Indians to hold these jobs. She told her story in one of the books.

“I went out and worked in the white man’s world,” she said. “I had to – there was nothing here.”

The books are published by the Minnesota Historical Society Press, which has published 45 books in Ojibway and Dakota over the past two decades. The project took just under three years from concept to publication, with the COVID-19 pandemic forcing much of the work to be done through online video calls.

Still, it was a joyful experience, said Anton Treuer, who served as editor.

“We had to take a lot of laughter breaks,” he said, laughing as he described how grandchildren would be sent to help their grandparents connect to Zoom calls.

“The team has done an incredible job releasing five books in less than three years in the midst of a pandemic,” said Tammy Wickstrom, executive director of Aanjibimaadizing.

The difference between this publication and other publications of works in Ojibwe is that these books are completely monolingual, and the press had to trust the group team to put together books that no one on the publishing team. could read.

“I’m a helper on this, not a visionary,” said Ann Regan, editor-in-chief of the press. “And we are not responsible. We work with extremely knowledgeable, competent and committed people.”

Humans haven’t had writing for most of their history, Regan said. But now these oral traditions are in danger of being lost, making it crucial to preserve the language in written form as the best way to pass it on to future generations.

“This is the heartbreaking part of this language job,” she said. “Every time an elder dies, you lose a dictionary. If you don’t write it down, you won’t have materials to teach people the way they need to learn now.”

The Ojibwe language is sacred to its people, said Treuer, an Ojibwe professor at Bemidji State University and author of nearly 20 books on Indian language, culture and history.

“It is at the center of our identity,” he said. “Our unique worldview is embodied in our language. For us, our language should be at the center of all efforts to live long and healthy lives.”

The book projects were driven by the group’s elders’ desire to preserve the legacy passed down to them from their ancestors, Treuer said.

“The elders made a pretty strong statement about what they value, and the young people don’t just follow it, they lead it,” he said.

“The goal is to teach speakers for hundreds of years to come.”

John Reinan • 612-673-7402

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Time to revise the concept of weather in the United States Tue, 28 Sep 2021 07:00:00 +0000 In the spring of 2020, Democratic presidential candidate Joe Biden asserted what his policy would be regarding the Iran nuclear deal if elected: “I would join the deal and use our renewed commitment to diplomacy to work with our allies to strengthen and extend it. After eight months in office, nothing significant has happened. Biden […]]]>

In the spring of 2020, Democratic presidential candidate Joe Biden asserted what his policy would be regarding the Iran nuclear deal if elected: “I would join the deal and use our renewed commitment to diplomacy to work with our allies to strengthen and extend it. After eight months in office, nothing significant has happened. Biden has also shown little ability to work with America’s closest allies on issues as fundamental as exiting Afghanistan or defining its Indo-Pacific strategy.

Knowledgeable analysts such as Trita Parsi of the Quincy Institute warned earlier this year that, because the impending Iranian elections risked strengthening hard-line supporters, the Biden administration had a “short window” to deal with it. act and join the Common Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) and undo the work of Donald Trump. In June, Ebrahim Raisi, a hardline supporter, won the elections in Iran.

The West struggles to understand China’s common prosperity


The indirect talks, started too late to have an impact, were already at a standstill. Soon after, US Secretary of State Antony Blinken complained that the Iranians were dragging their feet. “We are committed to diplomacy,” he said, “but this process cannot go on indefinitely.”

Last week, MSNBC’s Andrea Mitchell met with Iranian Foreign Minister Hossein Amirabdollahian for clarification. Quoting President Raisi, she began by asking the minister if Iran was determined to move forward “in a few weeks”. Americans think “time is running out”. Mitchell insisted on identifying this essence. The minister chose to respond as any Asian diplomat could.

He used the kind of indirect language that Americans usually don’t understand or with which they just lose patience. American culture expects people to call a spade a spade, even though in politics Americans seldom do so themselves, preferring deviation or even prevarication to ironic thinking.

“We have neither the opportunity nor the time,” replied the minister to his impatient interlocutor, “to sit in meetings just to drink coffee with each other. What is important to us are tangible results. He reminded Mitchell of Iran’s well-established position to challenge the Americans, who unilaterally broke the deal and applied sanctions, to cancel the sanctions as a means of getting back to normal.

Mitchell then added further pressure, citing Blinken’s position that “time is not indefinite” and asked him to “project how quickly” Iran could return to the negotiating table. The minister complained that the JCPOA had not provided any benefit to Iran for years and explained that it was “reviewing” and “evaluating” now in order to “keep the negotiating window open”. He added that “we will come back to the negotiations very soon”.

His remark provoked a new misunderstanding which was repeated in the press the next day. It was the word “soon”. Reuters reports that Amirabdollahian then explained to his countrymen on state television station IRINN the Americans’ obsession with “keeping asking how soon.” Does it mean days, weeks or months? “

He added: “The difference between Iran and the ‘soon’ Westerner is a lot. For us, “soon” really means at the first opportune moment – when our reviews (of the nuclear dossier) are completed. What is important is our determination to resume talks, but those that are serious and guarantee the rights and interests of the Iranian nation.

Today’s dictionary definition of the devil:


A measure of the relationship between identifiable events that most cultures regard as variable and flexible, but which American culture has long decided upon is a rigid, fixed system that can be translated into both monetary value (“time, it’s money ”) and a measure of morale. character of those who do not meet the deadlines.

Contextual note

At one point, Mitchell asks a question that only an American would ask: “Is time running out for Iran to be willing to return to the JCPOA?” Americans believe that everything should have a deadline or an expiration date that should be set as quickly as possible. Amirabdollahian replied: “We think diplomacy still works,” adding that if the other parties (the original six signatories) do not live up to their commitments, Iran will “not stay in the deal, fulfilling our end of the bargain.” .

According to the minister, the Iranians “think diplomacy still works”. Just like “soon”, the word “always” has a different meaning in the two cultures. Culture analysts describe Iran as a high-context culture, unlike America’s low-context culture. In a high-context culture, circumstances and context provide and complement meaning that is only superficially indicated by a word or idea.

Without context, one can never be sure of the meaning. Americans prefer to think that everything has a fixed and unambiguous definition. Not only do they call a spade a spade, but they believe it is just a spade.

In Lewis Carroll’s Alice in Wonderland, Humpty Dumpty tells the eponymous heroine: “When I use a word … it means exactly what I want it to mean – no more and no less. Puzzled, Alice replies, “The question is whether you can make the words mean so many different things.” Humpty Dumpty may have a knack for confusing young girls and may even be less than utterly sincere, but he represents a high-context culture. Alice thinks like an American.

Historical Note

Since it supplanted French as a universal diplomatic language recognized at a time of the 20e century, English has become the world’s lingua franca for business and politics. One of the advantages of the British and Americans is that everyone is now required to speak a language they understand. But there are ways that using their own language prevents them from understanding what others mean when they use it.

Being monolingual often correlates with monocultural thinking. English speakers today can feel comfortable with the sound of the words they hear without even hearing the thoughts and intentions that others express with the same English words. This is what seems to be happening in the interview with Andrea Mitchell. This forced Amirabdollahian to explain something that most Americans don’t understand.

Mitchell, of course, is only doing a job of bringing a form of entertainment called current events to an audience whose expectations are known. For that, she doesn’t really need to explore the meaning. Her audience expects her to make a superficial impression designed to support her own beliefs. It is the law of the media. A deeper question to consider is its impact on foreign policy.

Biden’s foreign policy is aimed at understanding the material and psychological truth of the situation. But he’s also driven by what they know of the much more superficial expectations of the American public. An important part of their job is to please American voters, a key to being reelected.

Most Americans have probably learned at some point in their lives that the Spanish word “manana“Means” tomorrow “. Americans sometimes say they will do something tomorrow. They take it as a promise to act the next day. But they are also taught that when Mexicans promise to do something manana, it expresses a vague intention to possibly do so in the future. This stereotype allows Americans to categorize Mexicans as both unreliable and lazy.

What monolingual and monocultural Americans fail to understand is that each culture treats time and everything related to timing differently. There is no logical reason why “tomorrow”, “tomorrow, “manana, “domani” Where “Morgen“Should refer to a specific date in the calendar. In Spanish and German, “manana ” and “Morgen ” also means “morning”. These languages ​​designate the coming night as dividing the present from the future. This future can be indefinite, like “für ein besseres Morgen”- for a better future.

In South Africa, the English word “now” can also mean any time in the future, from the present moment. To put things closer to the present, people will literally say “now now”, but even then there is some leeway. As one South African noted, “We can try to explain it, the reality is you still might not have it. This is a case where English does not translate into English.

The Andrea Mitchell interview and the example of Americans joking about the Mexican “mañana” highlight the difficulty that Americans with low context – convinced that words have a fixed meaning – not only understand the concept of other people’s time. , but, more importantly, the value of time. related concepts in the minds of these people when applied to real life situations. Maybe in the area of ​​foreign policy, like cigarettes, they should be labeled as potentially dangerous to health.

*[In the age of Oscar Wilde and Mark Twain, another American wit, the journalist Ambrose Bierce, produced a series of satirical definitions of commonly used terms, throwing light on their hidden meanings in real discourse. Bierce eventually collected and published them as a book, The Devil’s Dictionary, in 1911. We have shamelessly appropriated his title in the interest of continuing his wholesome pedagogical effort to enlighten generations of readers of the news. Read more of The Daily Devil’s Dictionary on Fair Observer.]

The opinions expressed in this article are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the editorial policy of Fair Observer.

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Seychelles: German professor dedicated to the study of Seychellois Creole dies at the age of 84 Tue, 31 Aug 2021 07:00:00 +0000 A German national in Seychelles is remembered as an ardent defender and promoter of the development of the Creole language. Annegret Bollée died last weekend in her homeland at the age of 84. The professor – a linguist – is described as a pioneer in the research of Seychellois Creole. Anna, as her friends affectionately […]]]>

A German national in Seychelles is remembered as an ardent defender and promoter of the development of the Creole language.

Annegret Bollée died last weekend in her homeland at the age of 84. The professor – a linguist – is described as a pioneer in the research of Seychellois Creole.

Anna, as her friends affectionately called her, first arrived in the islands in 1973. She edited the very first Creole language dictionary in 1982.

The entries in this dictionary formed the basis of the current lexical database maintained by the Creole Institute for all of its linguistic tool development projects, including an ongoing monolingual dictionary and a Creole spell checker.

The Creolist, as she called herself, has also produced several folk tales and stories from the Seychelles – 115 islands in the western Indian Ocean.

Penda Choppy, a close collaborator of the late linguist for more than 20 years, is the former director of the Creole Institute and the current director of the Institute for Research on Creole Language and Culture at the University of Seychelles.

She told SNA last Thursday that “Bollée’s greatest achievement has been to initiate scientific research into the language”.

Choppy explained that she first met Anna in 1999, during one of the latter’s annual visits to the island nation. It was when Choppy was planning to organize a first conference on the Creole language. In October, the colloquium came to fruition and Anna was among the participants.